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WAR COOK BOOK 

FOR AMERICAN WOMEN 

Suggestions for Patriotic Service 
in the Home 



Compiled from Official Sources 

BY 

Frederic J. Haskin 



ISSUED BY THE 

United States Food Administration 



WAR COOK BOOK 

FOR AMERICAN WOMEN 



Suggestions for Patriotic Service 
in the Home 



Compiled from Official Sources 

BY 

Frederic J. Haskin 





Issued by the 

United States Food Administration 

Form 101 



CONTENTS 

The President's Call 3 

The Pledge 4 

The Food Conservation Campaign 5 

Home Card 8 

Service Suggestions 11 

Household War Orders 14 

Food Elements 15 

Saving Schedule 17 

Save Wheat 18 

Save Meat 22 

Use Vegetables 23 

Use Leftovers 26 

Save Sugar 28 

Save Fats . . « . ,.-„. . . » « . *. 30 



NATIONAL CAPITAL PRM1. INC., WA»HIN«TON, 9. «. 



The President's Call to the Women 
of the Nation 



My Dear Mr. Hoover: It seems to me that the inaugura- 
tion of that portion of the plan for Food Administration 
which contemplates a national mobilization of the great 
voluntary forces of the country which are ready to work 
toward saving food and eliminating waste admits of no 
further delay. 

The approaching harvesting, the immediate necessity for 
wise use and saving, not only in food, but in all other ex- 
penditures, the many undirected and overlapping efforts 
being made toward this end, all press for national direction 
and inspiration. 

The women of the nation are alread}^ earnestly seeking 
to do their part in this our greatest struggle for the mainte- 
nance of our national ideals, and in no direction can they so 
greatly assist as by enlisting in the service the Food Admin- 
istration and cheerfully accepting its direction and advice. 
By so doing they will increase the surplus of food available 
for our own army and for export to the Allies. To provide 
adequate supplies for the coming year is of absolutely vital 
importance to the conduct of the war, and without a very 
conscientious elimination of waste and very strict economy 
in our food consumption, we cannot hope to fulfill this 
primary duty. 

I trust, therefose, that the women of the country will not 
only respond to your appeal, and accept the pledge to the 
food administration which you are proposing, but that all 
men also who are engaged in the personal distribution of 
foods will cooperate with the same earnestness and in the 
same spirit. I give you full authority to undertake any 
steps necessary for the proper organization and stimulation 
of their efforts. 



Cordially and sincerely yours, 



Mr. Herbert C. Hoover, 
Washington, D. C. 
June 12, 1917. 




3 



War Service in the Home 

THE PLEDGE 



PLEDGE CARD FOR UNITED STATES FOOD 
ADMINISTRATION 

IF YOU HAVE ALREADY SIGNED, PASS THIS ON 
TO A FRIEND 

To the Food Administrator: 

I am glad to join you in the service of food con- 
\ servation for our nation and I hereby accept mem- 
| bership in the United States Food Administration, 
; pledging myself to carry out the directions and 

advice of the Food Administrator in my home, 
j in so far as my circumstances permit. 

! Name 

| Street 

City State 

There are no fees or dues to be paid. The Food Administration wishes 
i to have as members all of those actually handling food in the home. 

Anyone may have the Home Card of Instruction, but only those sign- 
j ing pledges are entitled to Membership Window Card, which will be de- 
j livered upon receipt of the signed pledge. 



The Food Conservation Campaign 



The Food Conservation Campaign is a campaign to save 
food. The food that America saves will go far toward win- 
ning the war and saving civilization. There is a duty and a 
responsibility laid on every American household today. 
There must be a wise choice of food, no waste, and careful 
use. The women of America control nine-tenths of the con- 
sumption of food. The President of the United States calls 
upon patriotic women to do their duty, in an appeal which 
is printed on the first page of this book. 

Millions of women have signed the pledge of cooperation. 
By so doing they have made a covenant with the government 
that, in managing their households from day to day, they 
will always remember the needs of the nation as told to 
them by the Food Administration. 

The pledge is not a promise to so some particular thing, 
but an agreement to follow directions. Directions are 
issued to suit conditions that vary from day to day. In the 
spring, for example, when the stock of potatoes ran low, the 
directions said: Eat rice; but when the potato crop was 
harvested, the directions said: Eat potatoes, the rice is 
wanted for the Army. 

The directions are carefully based on what is required by 
the whole nation, by the Army, and by the cause of honor 
and democracy for which we are making war. Each house- 
hold must decide for itself how far it can follow the direc- 
tions, according to the pledge, which reads, "in so far as my 
circumstances will permit." The country looks to each 
woman to do what she can. Just how much she will do is 
left to her individual conscience. 



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War Cook Book 



The directions are based on definite knowledge. Under 
Mr. Herbert Hoover in the Food Administration, and under 
Dr. R. L. Wilbur in the Food Conservation Division, all 
that can be known of the country's supply of different foods, 
of their food values and how they can be substituted, one 
for another, is carefully compiled and studied. How much 
grain we can spare is known, and how much our Allies need. 
It is known how much barley and rye they can work into 
their war bread, and how much wheat we must send them. 
The American woman who pledges her cooperation in the 
Food Conservation Campaign can be sure that the direc- 
tions she receives have been drawn up by men and women 
who know, and who will not ask her for any saving which 
can possibly deprive her family of any necessary foodstuffs. 

When the Food Administration proposes that everyone 
eat one more potato instead of that other slice of bread, it 
means that so many million bushels of wheat can be sent to 
the armies of our Allies fighting in Europe. We eat the 
potatoes and send the wheat, instead of eating the wheat and 
sending the potatoes, because a ship will carry three times 
as much food in the form of wheat. 

When the Food Administration again recommends corn 
muffins instead of toast, it means that by going on a partial 
war diet we can spare so many more million bushels of wheat 
for our Allies, who are already eating war bread. We send 
wheat instead of corn, because wheat bread can be made 
into baker's loaves, and will keep, while corn-bread cannot. 
When Americans are urged to eat more fish and poultry 
instead of meat, or to save a third of an ounce of butter a 
day, it means that the Food Administration knows — and 
knows definitely — in ounces and pounds — what America 
must do to save America's Allies from starving. 

Food — the necessary foodstuffs — must be saved in America 
or the Allies will be weakened, and the cause may be lost. 
At the very least, victory will be so much more dearly bought 



For American Women 



1 



in American blood and American lives. Wheat and red 
meat and fats must be spared from America's stores, or the 
soldiers and workers of the Allies will want, and the little 
children will pine away. The Government cannot save 
food ; it must be done by the people, by each woman in her 
own home. Through making and keeping the volunteer 
pledge the women — and the men — of this land will see that 
America does her part to prevent distress at home, to serve 
the cause of humanity, to see that democracy does not 
perish from the earth — to put the Golden Rule above the 
Iron Law. 



8 



War Cook Book 



HOME CARD 

(1918) 

United States Food Administration 

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP WIN THIS WAR 

OUR PROBLEM is to feed the Allies and our own soldiers 
abroad by sending them as much food as we can of the most 
concentrated nutritive value in the least shipping space. 
These foods are wheat, beef, pork, butter and sugar. 

OUR SOLUTION is to eat less of these and as little of 
all foods as will support health and strength. These foods 
are wheat, beef, pork, butter and sugar. 

The Food Administration asks every loyal American to 
help win the war by maintaining rigidly, AS A MINIMUM 
OF SAVING, the following program: 

Have TWO WHEATLESS DAYS (Monday and Wed- 
nesday) in every week, and ONE WHEATLESS 
MEAL in every day. 

EXPLANATION— On "Wheatless" days and in 
"Wheatless" meals of other days use no bread, 
crackers, pastry, breakfast food or other cereal 
food containing wheat or wheat flour in any form 
except the small amount that may be needed for 
thickening soups or gravies, or for a binder in com 
bread and other cereal breads. If you buy your 
bread do not buy any containing more than 70 
per cent of wheat flour. 
Have ONE MEATLESS DAY (Tuesday) in every week 
and ONE MEATLESS MEAL in every day. Have 
TWO PORKLESS DAYS (Tuesday and Saturday) 
in every week. 



For American Women 



9 



EXPLANATION — ' ' Meatless' ' means without any 
beef, pork or mutton, fresh or preserved. On 
other days use mutton in preference to beef. 
"Porkless" means without pork, bacon, ham, 
lard or pork products, fresh or preserved. As a 
nation we eat and waste nearly twice as much 
meat as we need. 

Make every day a FAT-SAVING DAY (butter, lard, 
lard-substitutes, cottonseed oil, etc.). 
EXPLANATION— Fry less. You can bake, broil, 
boil or stew foods instead. Save your meat drip- 
pings if you are not doing so now and use them in 
cooking instead of butter. Butter has food values 
vital to children; therefore, give it to them, but 
use as little as possible for yourself. Use vege- 
table oils instead of butter or lard in cooking. 
Waste no soap; it is made from fat. We use and 
waste two and a half times more fat than we need. 

Make every day a SUGAR-SAVING DAY. 

EXPLANATION— Use less sugar in the house- 
hold. Less candy and sweet drinks should be 
used in war time. As a nation we have used 
twice as much sugar as we need. 

Use VEGETABLES AND FRUITS abundantly. 

EXPLANATION— Vegetables and fruits are 
healthful and plentiful, and, at the same time, 
partly take the place of other foods which we 
should save. Raise vegetables and fruits for 
home use. 

Use MILK wisely. 

EXPLANATION— Use all of the milk; waste no 
part of it. The children must have whole milk. 
Use sour milk in cooking and as cottage cheese. 

HOARDING FOOD. Any one buying and holding a 
larger supply of food now than in peace time, except 



10 



War Cook Book 



foods canned, dried or preserved in the home, is help- 
ing to defeat the Food Administration in its attempt 
to secure a just distribution of food and the establish- 
ment of fair prices. The food hoarder is working 
against the common good and even against the ver}^ 
safety of the country. Hoarding food in households 
is both selfish and unnecessary, as the Government 
is protecting the food supply of its people. 
Loyalty in little things is the foundation of the national 
strength. DISLOYALTY IN LITTLE THINGS GIVES 
AID TO THE ENEMY. KEEP THE PLEDGE. 
Do not limit the food of growing children. 
Eat sufficient food to maintain health; the nation needs 
strong people. 

Cooperate with your local and federal food administrators. 
Accept their advice. 

Preach and practice the "gospel of the clean plate." 

Housekeepers should cooperate with stores to cut down 
deliveries. 

Use local supplies and save railroad transportation. 

Report to the nearest food administration officer the name 
and address of any person discouraging the production or 
saving of food. 



For American Women 11' 

Why We Must Save Food 



To the Members of the United States Food Administration: 

The men of the Allied Nations are fighting; they are not 
on the farms. Even the men of the European neutral 
countries are under arms. The fields of both Allies and 
neutrals lack man-power, fertilizer and machinery. Hence, 
the production of food by these countries has steadily less- 
ened ever since the beginning of the' war, while, at the same 
time, the shortage of shipping has grown more and more 
serious, with the consequent steady increase of difficulties 
in bringing food from the far-away markets of India, Aus- 
tralia and the Argentine. 

The situation has become critical. There is simply not 
enough food in Europe, yet the soldiers of the Allies must 
be maintained in full strength; their wives and children at 
home must not face famine; the friendly neutrals must not 
be starved; and, finally, our own army in France must never 
lack a needed ounce of food. 

There is just one way in which all these requirements can 
be met. North America must furnish the food. And it 
must furnish it from its savings because it has already sent 
its normal surplus. 

We do not need to starve our own people. We have 
plenty for ourselves, and it is the firm policy of the Food 
Administration to retain for our people, by its control of 
exports, a sufficient supply of every essential foodstuff. We 
want nobody in our country to eat less than is necessary 
for good health and full strength, for America needs the full 
productive power of all its people. Much of the needed 
saving can be effected by substituting one kind of food for 
another in our diet. But the time has come to put aside all 
selfishness and disloyalty. The time has come for sacrifice. 



12 



War Cook Book 



The Allies ask us to meet only their absolutely imperative 
needs. They are restricting the consumption of their own 
people to the minimum necessary for health and strength. 
They are controlling their food by drastic government 
regulation. There is even actual privation among their 
women and children ; there is starvation in Belgium. 

The Allies need wheat and meat and fats and sugar. 
They must have more of all of these than we have been 
sending, more than we shall be able to send unless we restrict 
our own consumption. As a nation, we are today eating 
and wasting much more food than we need. 

The whole great problem of winning the war rests pri- 
marily on one thing : the loyalty and sacrifice of the American 
people in the matter of food. It is not a government re- 
sponsibility; it is the responsibility of each individual. 
Each* pound of food saved by each American citizen is a 
pound given to the support of our army, the Allies and the 
friendly neutrals. Each pound wasted or eaten unneces- 
sarily is a pound withheld from them. It is absolutely a 
personal obligation on the part of each of us to some one in 
Europe whom we are bound to help. 

If we are selfish or even careless, we are disloyal, we are 
the enemy at home. Now is the hour of our testing. Let 
us make it the hour of our victory; victory over ourselves; 
victory over the Enemy of Freedom. 

HERBERT HOOVER, 
United States Food Administrator. 



For American Women 

Service Suggestions 



13 



Join the Service Army 

Everybody must pull together. The consumer must help to see to 
it that the farmer gets reasonable prices for his products. The farmer 
must help the government to protect the consumer from the extortion 
of unscrupulous and disloyal food speculators. 

Go Back to the Simple Life 

Be contented with simple food, simple pleasures, simple clothes. 
Work hard, pray hard, play hard. Work, eat, recreate, and sleep. 
Do it all courageously. We have a victory to win. 

Keep Fit 

It is the duty of every citizen to keep himself in good health. This 
means proper exercise and sleep. It also means careful attention to 
food. Eat the right things, the proper combinations, and the right 
amount. Follow these principles laid down by the United States Food 
Administration. 

Buy less; cook no more than necessary; serve smaller portions. 

Use local and seasonable supplies. 

Patronize your local producers and lessen the need of transportation. 
Preach and practice the ''gospel of the clean plate." 
We do not ask the American people to starve themselves. Eat 
plenty, but wisely, and without waste. 

Do not limit the plain food of growing children. 

Do not eat between meals. 

Watch out for the waste in the community. 

Don't Waste Food by Serving too Much 

Cook just enough for your family. Do not imagine you are going to 
have unexpected guests. The chances are that you will only waste good 
food. Serve smaller portions, so that none will be left upon the plates. 

) Don't Try Dangerous Experiments 

Careless cooking must go. We must not conduct wasteful experi- 
ments. Let the departments at Washington and at your State uni- 
versities do the experimenting for you. 



14 



War Cook Book 



Store your Root Vegetables Carefully for Winter Use 

We have an abundance of vegetables. Root vegetables will keep if 
carefully stored. Can and dry the others. The widespread use of 
vegetables will insure the health of our people. 

Don't let Perishable Foods Perish in Your House 

Buy only what you need. See that it is put away clean and kept in a 
cool place. 

Plan Meals and do Your Ordering Ahead of Time 

This helps your butcher, your baker and your groceryman to have the 
right amount of material on hand. You avoid waste at home. 

Save Fuel 

Never leave gas burning when you are not using it. Matches cost 
less than gas. If you use coal or wood plan to use the oven when a hot 
fire must be built for other reasons. On baking day roast meat, bake 
potatoes or apples or plan a casserole dish. 

Don't try to make water reach a higher temperature than boiling. A 
high flame after the water boils wastes gas. Air out the oven before 
starting the fire. It will heat much more quickly. 

Make the New Foods Appetizing and Attractive 

By means of garnishes, sauces and judicious seasoning and flavoring 
the housewife can make her family vote themselves in favor of the new 
foods. Conversion in this case is patriotism. 

Heat only the Rooms You Use this Winter 

The fewer fires you can burn the better. Be especially careful in the 
use of coal. Burn wood if you can get it. Coal must be brought by the 
railroads and they are needed for war purposes. 

Keep in Touch with Your Local Council of Defense and with 
the United States Food Administration 

They have much to tell you. Have your name put on the mailing 
lists. Get the new recipes, cards and bulletins. Get speakers from 
your State Council to come and tell you about the work they are doing 
and the work you can do. 

Good Food Is Wasted 

If it gets into the garbage pail. 
If allowed to spoil in the home. 
If ruined by careless cooking. 
If carelessly pared and trimmed. 
If too much is served at a meal. 

Make saving, rather than spending, your social standard. 



For American Women 



15 



Let Us Remember 

Let us remember that every flag that flies opposite the German one 
is by proxy the Ameiican flag, and that the armies fighting in our defense 
under these flags can not be maintained through this winter unless there 
is food enough for them and for their women and children at home. 
There can only be food enough if America provides it. And America 
can only provide it by the personal service and patriotic cooperation of 
all of us. 

The boidiers Need The Folks at Home Can Use 



Wheat 


Corn 




Oats 




Barley 




Rye 


Butter 


Cottonseed Oil' 


Lard 


Peanut Oil 




Corn Oil 




Drippings 


Sugar 


Molasses 




Honey 




Syrups 


Beef 


Chicken 


Ham 


Nuts 


Mutton 


Eggs 




Cottage Cheese 




Fish 



For cooking 



16 War Cook Book 

Household War Orders 



THE FOOD CONSERVATION CAMPAIGN IN TERMS 
OF THE KITCHEN AND PANTRY 



Let This Be Your Saving Schedule 

1 ounce of sugar per person per day. 
}i ounce of fat per person per day. 

2 ounces of wheat flour per person per day. 

1 ounce of sugar measures 2 level tablespoons. 
Yj, ounce of butter measures 2 level teaspoons. 

2 ounces of flour measures 34 cup. 

Study This Problem in Arithmetic 

100,000,000 persons in the United States. 
100,000,000 x 1 ounce of sugar = 100,000,000 ounces of sugar. 
100,000,000 x Y ounce of fat = 33,333,333 ounces of fat. 
100,000,000 x 2 ounces of wheat flour = 200,000,000 ounces of wheat 
flour. 

100,000,000 ounces x 365 (days in one year) =2,281,250,000 pounds of 
sugar. 

33,333,333 ounces x 365 (days in one year) = 760,416,545 pounds of fat. 
200,000,000 ounces x 365 (days in one year) =73,000,000,000 pounds 
of wheat flour. 

This is the amount of sugar, fat and wheat flour that we Can save in 
one year. 

Study Your Menus 

Ask yourself the following questions about your menus: 

I. Are you using as much as possible of products raised near your 
home or are you making the railroads haul your food when they ought 
to be hauling supplies for the Army ? 

II. Are you working to save 25 per cent of the wheat — the wheat that 
will win the war ? 

III. Have you used beef, mutton or pork when you might have sub- 
stituted such muscle-building foods as cheese or beans ? 

IV. Does your menu provide for a one-third reduction in sugar? 
(Americans have been urgently asked to save this amount for our Allies, 
the French.) 

V. Does your menu provide plenty of whole milk for the children? 



For American Women 



17 



Food Elements 



Eat Something from Each of These Five Groups Every Day 

Group I. Foods for Mineral Matter, acids and body regulators. 
Group II. Protein Foods. 
Group III. Starchy Foods. 
Group IV. Foods for Sugar. 
Group V. Foods for Fat. 

GROUP I 

Eat Vegetables and Fruits for Mineral Matter, Acids and 
Body Regulators. Eat Freely of all These 



APPLES 

APRICOTS 

ASPARAGUS 

BANANAS 

LIMA BEANS 

BEETS 

BLACKBERRIES 

CABBAGE 

CARROTS 

CAULIFLOWER 

CELERY 



GREEN OR 

CANNED CORN 
CUCUMBERS 
GRAPES 
LEMONS 
LETTUCE 
MUSKMELON 
ONIONS 
ORANGES 
PARSNIPS 
PEACHES 



PEARS 
GREEN OR 

CANNED PEAS 
PINEAPPLE 
RHUBARB 
SPINACH 
SQUASH 

STRAWBERRIES 
STRING BEANS 
TOMATOES 
TURNIPS 



GROUP II 

Eat These Foods for Protein. Eat Sparingly of Those 
Written with the Small Type, Eat Freely of all Others 



BEANS AMERICAN CHEESE GAME 

SOY COTTAGE CHEESE LAMB 

LIMA EGGS SKIM MILK 

NAVY FISH Mutton 

Beef FOWL NUTS 



GROUP III 

Eat These Foods for Starches. Eat Sparingly of Those in 
Small Type but Freely of all the Others 



OYSTERS 
PEANUTS 
PEAS 
Pork 

RABBITS 
Veal 



BARLEY 
White Bread 
Cake 

GREEN OR 

CANNED CORN 
CORNFLAKES 
CORN MEAL 
Soda Crackers 



Graham Crackers 
Cream of Wheat 
Farina 
Wheat Flour 
HOMINY 
Macaroni 
OATMEAL 
ROLLED OATS 



WHITE POTATOES 
SWEET POTATOES 
RICE 
RYE 
TAPIOCA 
Wheat Breakfast 
Foods 



18 War Cook Book 

GROUP IV 

Eat These Foods for Sugar. Eat Sparingly of the One in 
Small Type. Eat Freely of the Others 

DRIED APPLES HONEY PRUNES 

CANE SYRUPS MAPLE SYRUP RAISINS 

CORN SYRUP MOLASSES SORGHUM 

DATES DRIED PEACHES Sugar 



GROUP V 

Eat These Foods for Fat. Eat Sparingly of Those in Small 
Type; Be Careful of all Fats. 

Bacon CORN OIL OLIVE OIL 

Butter Cream PEANUT BUTTER 

CHOCOLATE Lard PEANUT OIL 

COCOA OLEOMARGARINE Salt Pork 



For American Women 



19 



Try the Following Meat Saving Schedule 



Day Protein Foods Served 

Sunday Eggs Chicken • Milk 

(Poached) (Baked) (Sherbert) 

Monday Beans Leftover Chicken Milk 

(Baked) (Chicken Salad) 
or Fish 
(Broiled) 

Tuesday Eggs Fish Milk 

(Omelet) (Creamed) (Junket) 

Wednesday Cottage Peas Milk 

Cheese (Puree) 

Thursday Macaroni Peanuts Milk 

and Cheese (Loaf) 

Friday Fish American Cheese Milk 

(Baked) (Cheese Fondue) 

Saturday Beans Eggs and Milk Milk 

(Loaf) (Custard) 

Plan Well-Selected Meals 

The following gives a day's ample nourishment : 
BREAKFAST 

Group I. Prunes 
Group II. Eggs — Milk 

Group III. Graham Muffins — Oatmeal or Baked Potato 
Group IV. Jam 
Group V. Butter 

LUNCH OR SUPPER 

Group I. Vegetables in Salad 
Group II. Milk to Drink 
Group III. Corn Meal Muffins 
Group IV. Honey in Honey Cakes 
Group V. Butter — Salad Dressing 

DINNER 

Group I. Spinach — Apple in Pudding 
Group II. Fish — Egg and Milk in Pudding 
Group III. Potatoes — Rye Bread 
Group IV. Sugar in Coffee and in Pudding 
Group V. Butter — Cream in Coffee 



20 



War Cook Book 



Save the Wheat 



SAVE TWO OUNCES OF WHEAT FLOUR FOR EVERY 
PERSON IN YOUR FAMILY EVERY DAY 



The three slices of white bread omitted means one-fourth cup (2 
ounces) of flour saved. Eat more potatoes, and rice. Eat corn bread 
instead of wheat bread. 



Try the New War Breads where Other Materials Have 
been Substituted for Part of the Wheat 

WAR BREADS 



Barley Yeast Bread 

1 cup milk and water or water 

1 tablespoon sugar (if desired) 

1 tablespoon fat (if desired) 

1 teaspoon salt 

l!/6 cups barley flour 

2Y cups wheat flour 

Yz cake compressed yeast 



Rice Yeast Bread 

V/2 cup milk and water or water 
4 tablespoons sugar (if desired) 
4 tablespoons fat (if desired) 
V/2 teaspoons salt 

7 cups boiled rice 

8 cups flour 

Y cake compressed yeast 

Y cup warm water 



Corn Meal Yeast Bread 

1 YL cups milk and water or water 
2 tablespoons sugar (if desired) 

1 tablespoon fat (if desired) 

2 teaspoons salt 
Yi cup corn meal 
2/> cups flour 

Y cake compressed yeast 

Y CU P warm water 

Add sugar, fat and salt to liquid and bring to boiling point. Add 
corn meal slowly, stirring constantly until all is added. Remove from 
fire, cool mixture, and add compressed yeast softened in Y CU P warm 
water. Add 2Y cups flour and knead. Let rise until about double its 
bulk, knead again, and put in pan. When light, bake in moderate oven 
for at least an hour. 



For American Women 



21 



Save Wheat by Applying the "Fifty-Fifty" Rule 

"Fifty-Fifty" Biscuits 

2 cups corn meal, ground soy beans or finely ground peanuts, rice, 
flour or other substitute. 
2 cups white flour 
4 teaspoons baking powder 
2 teaspoons salt 

4 tablespoons shortening (if desired) 

Liquid sufficient to mix to proper consistency {l-\ l A cups) 

"Fifty-Fifty" Rye Yeast Bread 

1 cup milk and water, or water 

1 tablespoon fat (if desired) 

2 tablespoons sugar (if desired) 

1 teaspoon salt 

234 CU P S ^ fl our 

234 cups wheat flour 

Y2 cake compressed yeast 

2 tablespoons water 

"Fifty-Fifty" Corn Meal GriddJe Cakes 

1 cup sour milk 

% cup flour 

% cup corn meal 

% teaspoon soda 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

teaspoon salt 
1 egg 

Use Barley 

Ask your local dealer to get barley meal and barley flour for you 

Barley Scones 

1 cup whole wheat flour 2 tablespoons fat 

1 cup barley meal % cup sour milk 
3^ teaspoon salt y£ teaspoon soda 

2 teaspoons baking powder 



22 



War Cook Book 



Sift flour, barley meal, salt, baking powder and soda together and 
work in fat with tips of fingers or two knives. Combine flour mixture 
and sour milk to form a soft dough. Turn out on a well-floured board, 
knead slightly, roll to one-half inch thickness; cut in diamond shapes 
and bake in a hot oven. 

Barley Muffins 

1 cup whole wheat flour 1 egg 

1 cup barley meal 1}£ cups sour milk 
^ teaspoon salt 3^ teaspoon soda 

2 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons fat 

Sift flour, barley meal, salt, baking powder and soda. Combine 
flour mixture and sour milk. Add beaten egg and melted fat. Bake 
in muffin pans in moderate oven. 

Cut Your Bread at the Table 

Follow the old fashion. Cut each slice of bread at the table as it is 
needed. This custom will help to save our wheat supply. 



Use Every Crumb of Stale Bread 

Use stale bread for bread puddings, for chicken or turkey dressings, 
for soups, for part of the flour in bread, cakes, griddle cakes and bis- 
cuits. Dry it thoroughly and make crumbs to use on casserole dishes, 
for croquettes and meat balls, for stuffings for peppers and whole canned 
tomatoes. 

Cut the Bread Thin 

Do not serve new bread. It is unsatisfying and one eats more than is 
necessary. Cut the slices thin. You are not being deprived of food. 
Simply eat more of other things than bread. 

Sponge Cake without Wheat 

4 eggs 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

1 cup sugar J4 teaspoon salt 

1 cup barley flour 

Separate the whites and yolks of eggs, beat yolks, add lemon juice 
and sugar, then flour. Fold in well-beaten whites of eggs and bake in 
slow oven. 



For American Women 



23 



Substitutes for a Loaf of Brea$ 

6 to 7 Sweet Potatoes 

13 Irish Potatoes 
I 3 / 5 cups Rice 

4 cups Rolled Oats 
2 cups Hominy 

8 Corn Meal Muffins 

2 1 /* cups Corn Meal Mush (uncooked) 

14 Corn Meal Griddle Cakes 
1 cup Indian Pudding 

(}4 cup Corn Meal, 4 cups Milk) 

9 Oatmeal Cookies (3 inches in diameter) 
18 Peanut Cookies (2 inches in diameter) 

Each of these amounts will give the same amount of energy as a loaf 
of bread. 

Use Corn Starch or Rice Flour for Thickening 

Use these instead of wheat flour in making white sauce, brown sauce, 
gravy, pudding sauce, puddings. 



24 



War Cook Book 



Save Meat 

One or Two Meatless Days Every Week Will Help 
Win the War 



Serve bean loaf, cheese dishes, omelets, and milk. Serve fish, 
rabbits, and poultry raised at home. These foods take the place of 
meat. Use them freely. 

SUBSTITUTE FOR 2 POUNDS OF SIRLOIN STEAK 

1% pounds chicken 5 quarts milk 

2 pounds fresh salmon 23 eggs 

2 2 /» pounds halibut 

These amounts give as much body-building food as do 2 pounds of 
sirloin steak. 

GIVE COTTAGE CHEESE A FAIR TRIAL 

Cottage cheese, the curd of sour milk, is one of the most important 
meat substitutes. It supplies more protein per pound than most meats 
and is considerably cheaper. Make cottage cheese sandwiches. Serve 
cottage cheese balls with salads. Combine it with chopped pimento 
and peppers and serve with salad dressing. 

USE THE SKIM MILK 

Use it liberally for cream soups, creamed and scalloped dishes, des- 
serts, cottage cheese and chowders. 



For American Women 



25 



Use Vegetables 



Eat all the Potatoes You Want 



Eat them three times a day. Serve them baked, broiled, riced, 
mashed, warmed over, creamed, with fish, and in soups. Use them in 
making pancakes, bread, rolls and biscuits. Use them to take the 
place of part of the wheat bread. Never waste them. Their starch 
and mineral content is valuable. 



Soy Beans 

Make bean soup 
purees. 

Baked Soy Beans 

13^2 cups yellow soy beans 
H cup navy beans 

X cu p su s ar 

34 teaspoonful mustard 

1 small onion 

yi pound salt pork 

Soak beans 12 hours, put in 
baking dish in which the salt 
pork, onion, sugar and mustard 
have been placed. Cover with 
cold water and cook in a slow 
oven at least 12 hours. 



Learn to Use Beans 

Navy Beans Lima Beans 

baked beans, succotash, bean loaf or roast, 



bean 



Lima Bean Roast 

1 pt. dried Lima beans 
}/2 pt. peanuts 
}/2 pt. stale bread crumbs 
1 teaspoonful onion juice 
1 teaspoonful salt- 
Pepper 

Soak beans 12 hours. Cover 
with water and boil until tender. 
Press through colander. Put pea- 
nuts through meat grinder. Mix 
with bean pulp. 



Put the Peanut on Your Table 

Peanuts are a valuable food. They contain as much protein as 



beans. They are comparatively cheap 
Peanut Soup 
V/i pints peanuts 
3 quarts water 
1 bay leaf 
]/2 cup celery 
1 slice onion 
1 quart milk 



Learn to use them. 
Peanut Loaf 

1 cup roasted peanuts 

2 cups bread crumbs 
34 cup melted fat 
Yi teaspoonful onion juice 
1 egg 

3^ teaspoonful salt 
34 teaspoonful pepper 
Milk 



26 



War Cook Book 



Soak peanuts overnight in 2 
quarts of water; in the morning, 
drain, add remaining water, bay 
leaf, celery and onion ; boil this 
slowly 4 or 5 hours, stirring fre- 
quently to prevent burning, or 
boil 15 minutes and place in fire- 
less cooker over night. Rub 
through sieve and return to fire. 
When again hot add the milk and 
let soup boil up; then season and 
serve. 

Twenty Ways 



To the peanuts, bread crumbs 
melted fat, beaten egg, onion 
juice, salt and pepper, add enough 
milk to make a moist loaf. Add 
more seasoning if desired. Put 
into a greased tin or mold, bake 
for one hour in a moderate oven, 
covering the first half of the time. 
Turn out on a hot dish, sprinkle 
with chopped peanuts and serve 
with brown sauce. 

of Using Corn 



See if this list does not suggest possibilities to you. 



Corn Meal 

Pone 

Mush 

Cake 

Bread 

Muffins 

Yeast Bread 

Indian Pudding 

Brown Bread 



Hominy 

Breakfast Food 
Griddle Cakes 
Muffins 
Soup 

Slices, Browned with 

Meat Pudding 
Pudding 



Green, Dried or 
Canned Corn 

Succotash 
Corn Oysters 
Corn Fritters 
Soup 
Chowder 
Escalloped Corn 



Save Water in Which Vegetables Were Boiled 

Make cream soups by using this water to thin a white sauce, and 
season as desired. Vegetables and leaves which cannot be used for 
any other purpose can "do their bit" in the soup kettle. 



Boil Potatoes in Their Jackets 

Much valuable material lies close to the skin of a potato. Thick 
parings cheat the consumer. 

Losses in Cooking 

Potatoes, pared before boiling, lose into the water in which they 
are cooked about one-fifth of the iron they contain; peas and beans 
lose from one-third to two-fifths, and spinach one-half of the total 
amount present. This variation is because of the relative amount of 
surface exposed in the different vegetables. 



For American Women 



27 



The amount of iron in cur foods is small. Its importance to the 
body is great. We should conserve it to the greatest possible extent 
To do this we should either steam our vegetables or use the water in 
which they are cooked. If potatoes are boiled and the water thrown 
away, they should be boiled "in their jackets." 

Peel potatoes after cooking. 

Preserve Your Own Eggs 

1. Coat them with water glass. Use 9 parts water to 1 part water 
glass which can be obtained at the drug store. 

2. Pack them in sawdust or small end down. Use wooden box. 
Keep them cool. 

Learn to Test Your Eggs 

"Candle" your eggs. Use a box with a hole cut in one side. Slip 
the box over an electric bulb or a lamp. Darken the room. Hold the 
egg with large end up before the opening in the box. Good eggs look 
clear and firm. The air cell is not larger than a dime. A large air cell 
and dark, freely moving yolk show that the egg is stale. Shell contents 
which appear black or very dark indicate a bad egg. 



28 War Cook Book 

Use the Left-Overs 

MEAT 

Use left-over meat in meat pies, meat salads, meat balls, meat 
dumplings, hash, meat loaf, casserole dishes, creamed meat, meat and 
vegetable stews, soups or in omelets. 

POTATO 

Combine potato with meat as above. Or make potato souffles, soups 
potato balls, potato pancakes, potato bread, potato cake, creamed 
potatoes, fish balls. 

BREAD 

Use for bread puddings, chicken or turkey dressing, soups, part of the 
flour in bread, cakes, griddle cakes and biscuits. Dry it thoroughly and 
make crumbs to use on scalloped dishes for stuffing for peppers and whole 
canned tomatoes. 

CAKE 

Use left-over cake for puddings. 

VEGETABLES 

Use left-over vegetables for salads, soups, chowders, in meat loaves, 
in casserole dishes or as a garnish for a roast and other dishes or as 
creamed vegetables. 

MILK 

Use all the milk — whether whole or skimmed. Make soups, white 
sauces, gravys, sherbets, ice cream, custards, junket, gelatin sponges, 
and Bavarian creams. Make cottage cheese and chowders. Use it in 
scalloped dishes. Buttermilk and sour milk with soda make excellent 
quick breads, pancakes and cakes. Milk for which there is no other use 
should go to feed chickens. 

CHEESE SCRAPS 

Grate hard cheese and use it for macaroni dishes, sauces and sand- 
wiches. Keep fresh cheese wrapped in a cloth dipped in vinegar and 
wrung dry. 

Skimmed Milk Recipes 

RICE PUDDING 

1 quart skimmed milk teaspoonful salt 

Y$ cup rice }/$ cup sugar 



For American Women 



29 



Wash rice, mix ingredients, and pour into greased pudding dish; 
bake three hours in very slow oven, stirring three times during the first 
hour of baking to prevent rice from settling. 

Variations. — One cup raisins may be added to make Rice and Raisin 
Pudding. Two tablespoonfuls sugar may be caramelized, dissolved in 
hot water, and added to the milk to make Caramel Rice Pudding. 

The flavor may be changed and cost reduced by substituting Y cup 
molasses and Y teaspoon cinnamon for the sugar. 

CORNSTARCH PUDDING 

1 quart skimmed milk, scalded Y teaspoon salt 

Y cup cold skimmed milk Y cup sugar 

Y cup cornstarch 1 teaspoon vanilla. 

Mix cornstarch, sugar, salt and cold skimmed milk. Add to scalded 
skimmed milk, stirring constantly until mixture thickens, afterward 
occasionally; cook until raw starch taste disappears. Turn into a wet 
mold and cool. Unmold and serve. 

Variations. — Melt two squares of chocolate and add to the scalded 
skimmed milk. 

Caramelize 3 tablespoons sugar, dissolve in hot water to make a 
syrup and add to the scalded, skimmed milk. 

INDIAN PUDDING 

5 cups scalded skimmed milk 1 teaspoon salt 

Y cup Indian meal 1 teaspoon ginger 

Y cup molasses 

Pour skimmed milk slowly on meal, cook in double boiler twenty 
minutes, add molasses, salt, and ginger; pour into greased pudding- 
dish and bake two hours in slow oven. Ginger may be omitted. 

Variations. — One teaspoonful oleomargarine may be added to improve 
the flavor. Any ground cereal may replace the cornmeal to vary the 
flavor. 

IVORY JELLY 

\Y tablespoonfuls granulated gelatin Yk CU P sugar 
Yl cu P cold skimmed milk Y teaspoon salt 

2Y cups scalded skimmed milk % teaspoon cinnamon 

Soak gelatin in cold skimmed milk and dissolve in scalded skimmed 
milk. Add sugar, salt, and cinnamon. Strain into mold and chill. 



30 



War Cook Book 



Save Sugar 

HOW WE WASTE SUGAR 

In the bottom of the coffee cup. 

Too much on cereal breakfast foods. 

More than is necessary in breads and biscuits. 

By careless cooking when something is spoiled. 

By using a heavier (denser) syrup than is necessary in canning 
fruits. 

Use Syrups and Honey in Place of Sugar in Cooking 

BAKED HONEY CUSTARD DATE PUDDING 

2 cups milk 3 tablespoons fat 

3 eggs 1 cup molasses 

34 cup honey 3^ CU P sweet milk 

yi teaspoon powdered cinnamon 1}^ cups flour 

34 teaspoon salt 34 teaspoon salt 

Scald milk, beat eggs slightly. 34 teaspoon nutmeg 

Add honey, milk, cinnamon and % teaspoon allspice 

salt. Bake in custard cups set in 34 teaspoon cloves 

a pan of water. 3^ pound dates 

Stone and chop the dates, melt 
the fat, add to it the molasses and 
milk. Mix and sift dry ingre- 
dients and add to liquid. Add 
dates last of all. Steam 1H 
hours. 

RAISIN PIE 

2 cups raisins Juice of 1 orange 

Y 2 cup currants Juice of 1 lemon 

2 cups water 3^ rino1 , grated, of orange or lemon 

lcup honey 1 tablespoon butter substitute 

2 well-beaten eggs Dried bread crumbs to thicken 

Stew raisins and currants in water until tender. Add other in- 
gredients in order mentioned. Bake in one crust with strips of pastry 
across the top. 



For American Women 



31 



Eat Natural Sweets in Place of Candy 

Eat dates and figs and other sweet fruits. Eat maple sugar and 
honey, where you can get it, instead of candy. 

Spread Bread with Jam Instead of Butter 

Eating a slice of corn-bread spread with jam or fruit saves both 
wheat and butter. Use maple syrup, honey, and corn, sorghum and 
cane syrups, without butter, on pancakes and waffles. 

Serve Simple Refreshments at Parties 

Give your guests apples and other fruit, salted popcorn without 
butter, and candy made without sugar. 

Candy Without Sugar 

2 cups raisins 
1 cup nuts 
cup honey 

Grind nuts and raisins in food chopper. Mix with honey. Pack 
under a weight for 24 hours. Cut into bars. 

Popcorn Has Power 

Popcorn is very valuable as a food. Give the children popcorn balls 
made with honey or corn syrup. The children will be happy and 
satisfied, and you will be helping your country by saving on other 
sweets. 



?? War Cook Book 



Save Fats 



Keep a "Butter-Cup" 

Save the small amounts of butter left on plates. Scrape it into a 
cup kept for that purpose. Use it for "special" cooking. 

Use Other Fats in Place of Butter and Lard 

Chicken fat makes good pastry. Solidified vegetable oils are valu- 
able. Oleomargarine may often be used. Drippings and bacon fat 
are worth their weight in gold. Use these in any cooking. 

Learn to Use the Vegetable Oils 

Use corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil and olive oil for cooking and 
frying as well as in salad dressings. 

Make Soap of Fat Unfit for Cooking 

Use lye made by letting water drip slowly through wood ashes, or 
buy lye in cans. Use porcelain or enamel dish. Dissolve 1 can lye in 
1 quart cold water. Melt 5 pounds fat in separate dish. Strain 
through 2 thicknesses cheese cloth. Cool till lukewarm. Add dis- 
solved cooled lye. Stir until mixture is like porridge. Pour quickly 
into shallow pasteboard boxes or dripping pan. When cool, crease 
into cakes. Cut when nearly cold. 

Why not have a community soap making club ? 

Meat Trimmings Are Valuable 

If you buy meat get the trimmings, try out the fat and use it in 
cooking. 

Don't Waste Any Soap 

Save pieces of soap too small to handle, melt them in a little water 
over a slow fire, use for washing dishes or boiling clothes. 



I 



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